Developing a Transformative Innovation Policy Approach: the case of Senegal - Authors: Fatou Cissé, Joseph Diémé, Mamadou Sy, Chux Daniels, and ...

Developing a Transformative Innovation Policy Approach: the case of Senegal - Authors: Fatou Cissé, Joseph Diémé, Mamadou Sy, Chux Daniels, and ...
Developing a Transformative Innovation Policy Approach:
                  the case of Senegal

Authors: Fatou Cissé, Joseph Diémé, Mamadou Sy, Chux Daniels, and Mamadou Diallo,
                                 and Blanche Ting

                                   March 2019
1       Introduction

Senegal's Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) policy is defined by the Head of State
through a letter of mission addressed to the Ministers in charge of innovation areas. The
recipient ministries are responsible for submitting a sectoral policy letter and / or policy
document to the parliament. Thus, the implementation of STI policies is done at the level of
the Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur, de la Recherche et de l’Innovation (MESRI)
[Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation], and other ministries (e.g. Ministry
of Industry, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health), Universities and Research Institutes
(Gaillard and Kane 2011). MESRI is the main governing body for science and technology (S&T)
policy. In addition, MESRI defines the national priorities for S&T research and funds research
through various funding instruments. Furthermore, it coordinates S&T activities and works in
close collaboration with the technical ministries on which the research institutes depend.

STI Policy Evolution in Senegal

In Senegal, public authorities have always affirmed their desire to promote scientific and
technical research and to make it an instrument of economic and social development.
National reflection days (1978, 1998) and many inter-ministerial councils (May 1981,
September 1982, April 1984, January 1989) have been devoted specifically to discussions on
the role of research and STI in economic and social development. Over the years, MESRI, the
ministry in charge of the STI policy in Senegal, has evolved and made progress, despite various
instabilities that have negatively affected the ministry’s ability to fulfil her mandates.

During the first five years of independence, French institutions present in Senegal during the
colonial period provided most of the scientific potentials. These institutions are: la station
expérimentale d'arachide de Bambey devenue le Centre National de Recherche Agronomique
(CNRA) of Bambey 1, l’Institut Pasteur de Dakar 2, l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noir (IFAN),
le Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières 3 (BRGM), Office de la Recherche Scientifique
et Technique Outre-Mer 4 (ORSTOM), l’Ecole de médecine de Dakar 5 (EMD) which later became
l’Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar. It was only during the preparation of the second
national economic and social development plan (1965-1969) that a national scientific
research commission was set up for the first time to contribute to the study and research

  The Bambey groundnut experiment station which became the National Center for Agronomic Research
  The Pasteur Institute of Dakar
  The Fundamental Institute of Black Africa (IFAN), the Office of Geological and Mining Research
  Office of Scientific and Technical Research Overseas
  the Dakar Medical School
In 1966, in order to promote the scientific policy of the State, the Conseil interministériel de
la recherche scientifique et technique 6 (CIRST) was set up and the Bureau des affaires
scientifiques et techniques (BAST) opened and attached to the General Secretariat of the
Presidency of the Republic. In 1972, this Bureau was transformed into a Direction des affaires
scientifiques et techniques (DAST) to be attached to the State Secretariat for Planning. This is
a significant development with regard to the objectives of the State. However, these creations
had no real influence on the research structures, their objectives and their management
mode. From 1973, the Senegalese State established a more visible presence in research, both
in terms of its organization and the allocation of resources.

Thus, in December 1973, the Délégation générale à la recherche scientifique et technique
(DGRST) was created and attached directly to the Prime Minister’s office. This Delegation
reflects Senegal’s political will to ensure coordination and monitoring of scientific and
technical research. In addition to its rank, i.e. being attached to the government, the DGRST
was in charge of agricultural and agri-food research in the university research sector, thanks
to the leverage enabled by the Fonds d’impulsion de la recherche scientifique et technique
(FIRST). Agriculture is a key sector, in Senegal’s economy. The desire to federate all research
by integrating them led the DGRST to set up horizontal commissions: medical,
pharmaceutical, agricultural, agri-food and social research, scientific and technical

These committees are responsible for assisting the DGRST, in particular to determine research
priorities and evaluate results. This system was reinforced a few years later by the holding of
regional research development committees to better take into account regional specificities
in programs and research projects. The DGRST consolidated the organization of the national
scientific and technical research system in Senegal by setting up two support bodies: Centre
national de documentation scientifique et technique (CNDST) and the Institut sénégalais de
normalisation (ISN). The Directorate of External Relations complements these bodies, which
is at the origin of the first Franco-Senegalese joint commission devoted exclusively to

The DGRST was established as the State Secretariat to the Prime Minister in charge of S&T
Research on April 9, 1979. Its role is threefold: to promote, to coordinate and to manage
research activities. These mandates led the authorities to abolish the Scientific Directorate
and the Directorate of External Relations and to create several directorates: the Direction de
recherches agricoles et agro-industrielles (DRAAI) ; the Direction de l’innovation et du progrès
technologique (DIPT) ; the Direction des recherches en sciences sociales et humaines (DRSSH);
the Direction des études, des projets et du plan (DEPP). This period was marked by a dynamic

    Interministerial Council for Scientific and Technical Research
and fruitful cooperation in policy, which makes made it possible to largely offset the weakness
of internal resources with external financing.

Four years later, on 3 April 1983, a Ministry of Scientific and Technical Research replaced the
Secrétariat d’Etat chargé de la recherche scientifique et technique. In 1986 this was replaced
by the Direction des Affaires Scientifique et Techniques (DAST) attached to the Ministère du
Plan et de la Coopération. The Ministry of Scientific Research re-emerged in 1994 and then
became part of the Ministry of Higher Education until 2002. From 2002, the governing body
of research became a full-fledged ministry until December 2007 where it was merged again
with another department to become Ministère des Biocarburants, des Energies renouvelables
et de la Recherche scientifique (MBERRS).

The Ministry of Scientific Research was reinstated in October 2009 to the ministry of higher
education. Since then, research policy in Senegal has been carried out by the current Ministry
of Higher Education and Research, which was enhanced in September 2017 by becoming the
Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur, de la Recherche et de l’Innovation (MESRI).

Table 1: Summary of Senegal’s STI Policy Institutional Landscape from 1965 to 2019
 Year        Institution/Activity
 1965-       Bureau des Affaires scientifiques et techniques (BAST) - Office of Scientific and Technical
 1969        Affairs
 1972        Direction des Affaires scientifiques et techniques (DAST) - Directorate of Scientific and
             Technical Affairs
 1973-       Délégation générale à la Recherche scientifique et technique (DGRST) - General
 1979        Delegation for Scientific and Technical Research
 1979-       Secrétariat d’Etat chargé de la Recherche scientifique et technique - State Secretariat for
 1983        Scientific and Technical Research
 1983-       Ministère de la Recherche scientifique et technique - Ministry of Scientific and Technical
 1986        Research
 1986-       Direction des Affaires scientifiques et techniques (DAST) - Directorate of Scientific and
 1994        Technical Affairs
 1995-       Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et des Technologies - Ministry of Scientific
 1998        Research and Technologies
 1998-       Ministère de la Recherche scientifique et de la technologie - Ministry of Scientific
 2000        Research and Technology
 2001-       Ministère Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche scientifique - Ministry Higher
 2002        Education (HE) and Scientific Research
 2002-       Ministère de la Recherche scientifique et technologique - Ministry of Scientific and
 2003        Technological Research
 2003-       Ministère de la Recherche scientifique - Ministry of Scientific Research
 2007-       Ministère des Biocarburants, des Energies Renouvelables et de la Recherche scientifique -
 2009        Ministry of Biofuels, Renewable Energies and Scientific Research
 May 2009    Ministère de la Recherche scientifique - Ministry of Scientific Research
 - Oct
2009-       Ministère de l’Enseignement supérieur, des Universités, des Centres universitaires
 2012        régionaux et de la Recherche scientifique - Ministry of Higher Education, Universities,
             Regional University Centers and Scientific Research
 2012-       Ministère Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministry of Higher Education and
 2017        Research
 2017-       Ministère Enseignement supérieur, de la Recherche et de l’Innovation (MESRI) - Ministry
 2019        Higher Education, Research and Innovation
Source: Enquête sur les instruments de politique, les organes directeurs, le cadre juridique et
les politiques pour la science, l’ingénierie, la technologie et l’innovation (SITI)

Senegal does not yet have an STI policy document that is in line with international standards.
Relatedly, research institutions are fragmented and are under the supervision of different
ministries. For example, the Institut de Technologie Alimentaire (ITA) is attached to the
ministry of industry while the Institut Sénégalais de Recherche Agricole (ISRA) and the Institut
National de Pédologie (INP) are attached to the Ministry of agriculture. This break-up has
contributed to the dispersion and fragmentation of research and innovation through a
multiplication and superposition of priorities. The weakness and fragmentation of funding
sources, lack of visibility, consultation and synergy between the stakeholders are the major
challenges to overcome if innovation is to contribute more to socioeconomic development.

2        Frame 1: Innovation Policy in the Context of R&D and Regulation in

African countries are increasingly aware of the need to invest in STI to meet the challenges
they face. Considering research as a lever for economic and social development Senegal
attaches great importance to STI through various financing instruments (see Table 2). The
implementation of research and innovation activities depends both on state subsidies and on
funding from technical and financial partners (Cf Table 3), some of which are obtained by
research teams in the context of international tenders or direct contracts awarded by donors.
The contribution of the private sector is very small. Only few companies in the
telecommunications sector contribute to the funding of research and innovation. Most R&D
funding is provided by the State in the form of grants to the various research structures
(universities, public scientific institutions, higher schools, etc.), postgraduate scholarships and
competitive funds.

Efforts are being made by the Government to strengthen human resources for R&D.
According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) in 2015, Senegal had 14335 researchers,
822 technicians and 1443 support staff. Thus, the density of researchers per million
inhabitants increased from 2008 to 2015 from 661 to 956. However, the majority of
researchers are in the social sciences and humanities sector (Table 3).

Table 2: Main Indicators of R&D
Year                                    2015                      2012          2008
Indicators                                Total     women         Total         Total
Number of researcher                      14335     4201          8170             7859
Number of technicians                     822       258           605           -
Number of support staff                   1443      421           1869          -

Percentage of researchers (women)         29,31%                  25%           24%
Number of researcher PhD level            5928      1413          1647          2003

Number de researchers level Master 2      8407      2788          6511          5840
Number of researcher per million of  956                          636           661
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as 0,8 %                        0,51 %        0,37 %
a percentage of GDP
Sources: African Innovation Outlook II, ISU

Table 3: Senegal, Breakdown of researchers by scientific field, 2015
 Year                                                             2015              2012
 Exact and Natural Sciences                                         21,09%          18%
 Engineering and Technology Sciences                              7,07%             2%
 Medical and Health Sciences                                      14,85%            19,6%
 Agricultural sciences                                             1,29%            1,6%
 Social Sciences                                                  39,17%            50,7%
 Human Sciences                                                   16,50%            6,4%
Sources: African Innovation Outlook II, ISU

Apart from these research-funding instruments, for the reinforcement and promotion of
innovation, Senegal has a policy of rewarding excellence through the regular organization of
the President's Grand Price for Science and the Grand President's Award for Innovation.
An African exhibition of Research and Innovation in Senegal (SARIS) is regularly organized by
the Agence Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique Appliquée (ANRSA) in partnership with all
national components of research and innovation.

Higher education receives a grant from its parent ministry. However, more than 85% of this
allocation goes to salary. Senegal has put in place a policy of upgrading the university lecturer
and researcher function through one of the highest average pay levels in Africa. To this must
be added support for study and research trips, laboratories and scholarships for all PhD and
Master II students.

Table 4: Senegal, sources of financing R&D expenditure, 2015
 A            Funds from         Enterprise        Higher       Private-non         Total
              abroad                               Education    profit
 51 825       4 784 867 180      1 265 313 225     60 000 000   2 719 854 779       60 656 016 012
 980 828
 85,44 %      7,88 %             2,08 %            0,09 %       4,48 %              100 %
Source: ISU
The table of sources of financing R&D expenditure shows that in 2015, 85.44% of the financing
of this sector comes from the Senegalese State. Thus, the ratio of R&D expenditures to GDP
marks a confirmed trend of increase from 0.45% in 2008, 0.54% in 2010 to 0.91% in 2012,
0.73% in 2013 (African Union 2014, World Bank 2013) and 0.8% in 2015 (ISU, 2015). These
insufficient state efforts are justified by the many R&D and innovation financing mechanisms
put in place such as the FIRST, the GPRST, the Fonds de Publication scientifique et technique
(FPST), the Fonds National de Recherche Agricole et Agro-alimentaire (FNRAA) and the Fonds
de Promotion de l’Industrie Cinématographique et Audiovisuelle (FOPICA) 7.


The Fonds d’Impulsion pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (FIRST) (Fund for Scientific
and Technical Research) was established in 1973 by the Ministry of Scientific Research to
support economic growth through research. By aiming to encourage, to stimulate or even to
amplify research initiatives, FIRST mobilizes intervention credits that are allocated by the
State to the ministry of scientific research. Thus, it is both a financing element for projects
and an instrument for supporting and structuring the research sector.

The Grand Prix du Président de la République pour les Sciences et la Technologie (GPRST)
(The President of the Republic's Grand Price for Science and Technology) is a national
distinction whose objective is to reward the researchers who have particularly distinguished
themselves by their creativity, the importance or the originality of their works.

The Fonds de Publication scientifique et technique (FPST) (The Scientific and Technical
Publication Fund) is intended on the one hand to support the scientific and technical
publications existing in institutions and on the other hand, to finance the regular publication
of scientific journals edited under the auspices of the MESRI.

The Fonds National de Recherches Agricoles et Agro-alimentaires (FNRAA) (National Fund for
Agricultural and Agro-Food Research) was created on February 4, 1999, as an association of
public utility whose purpose is to finance, with the available resources, agricultural and agro-
food research projects considered as priorities by the State, the National Agricultural
Research System agro-silvo-pastoral (SNRASP), the development partners and the users of
the research results. The FNRAA is subject, within the limits of the provisions of its statutes,
to the administrative supervision of the Ministry in charge of the Economy and Finances and
to the technical supervision of the Ministry in charge of Agriculture. FNRAA's vision is to create
the conditions for diversified and sustainable financing of Senegalese agricultural and agro-
food research. To this end, the fund develops a policy (i) to promote its activities with
development partners, (ii) to promote quality results for users of research products.

7FPST (Scientific and Technical Publication Fund), FNRAA (National Fund for Agricultural and Agro-Food
Research) and FOPICA (Fund for the Promotion of the Cinematographic and Audiovisual Industry).
The Fonds de Promotion de l'Industrie Cinématographique et Audiovisuelle (FOPICA) (Fund for
the Promotion of the Cinematographic and Audiovisual Industry) was established by the law
2002-18 of April 15, 2002 on the rules of organization of the activities of cinematographic
and audio-visual production, exploitation and promotion. The establishment of this fund
meets a goal of reviving film production by allowing filmmakers, through legally constituted
production structures and in order with tax authorities, to find a continuous activity of
creation. The financial contribution of the State to the development of cinematographic and
audiovisual activities is done through a fund for the promotion of the film and audiovisual
industry whose organizational and operational modalities are set by decree.

Fonds de Financement Formation Professionnelle et Technique (3FPT) (Fund for Financing
Professional and Technical Training) was created by decree 2014-1264 of 7 October 2014. The
3FPT was set up by the Government of Senegal with the support of development partners
such as the World Bank and the French Development Agency. This fund, which replaces the
former FONDEF, was set up as part of the reform of the financing system for vocational and
technical training. This reform aims to optimize the available resources and mobilize
additional resources to meet the growing needs for vocational and technical training.

Banque Nationale de Développement Economique (BNDE) (National Bank for Economic
Development). The BNDE results from an institutional evolution and a transformation of the
FPE (Fonds de Promotion Economique).The ambition is to establish the BNDE as a successful
Bank in Senegal and a true leader in financing SMEs, both qualitatively and quantitatively. It
is also a question of making BNDE a dynamic bank, with a vocation of progressive positioning
on the whole of the banking activities (bank of deposit, bank of investment, management of
fortunes and assets ...) and on the others market segments (large companies, institutions,
Diaspora, microfinance institutions...). The objective is also to make the BNDE a national
financing tool actively participating in the implementation of the Accelerated Growth Strategy
of Senegal and more generally to the development of the country.

Délégation à l’Entreprenariat Rapide (DER) (Delegation for Rapid Entrepreneurship) was
created on a presidential decision since December 2017, this mechanism was set up to reduce
youth and women's unemployment by promoting entrepreneurship and employment.
However, failures of innovation financing structures in relation to needs are noted and on the
entrepreneurial side, bank financing is almost impossible to mobilize (or with difficulty) in
relation to a highly fragmented business sector with small and medium-sized enterprises
(SMEs) sometimes from the domestic economy. As for the few large companies, which are
often in a quasi-monopoly position on their products, they use externally produced research
and still operate in closed circuits too often.

Overall, despite commendable efforts the funding of research requires significant
improvement. The orientations favor the research for international academic and scientific
excellence rather than endogenous research. Resources allocated to research and innovation
have not exceeded 0.8% of the GDP. In order to encourage R&D in the industrial sector as
well as innovation, the amounts allocated to scientific research and technological innovation
amount to at least 1% of GDP.

3       Frame 2: Innovation Policy in the Context of National Systems of Innovation
(NSI) in Senegal

Although not having an STI policy document according to international standards, Senegal has
actively participated in the development and adoption of the STI policy of the Economic
Community of West African States (ECOPOST) and the ECOWAS Research Policy (ECORP).
Senegal is also participating in the African Initiative for STI Indicators (ASTII).

To enable STI to play a greater role as a driver of socio-economic and cultural development,
a Conseil National sur l’Avenir de l’Enseignement Supérieur (CNAES) 8 was held in 2013. It led
to the 2013-2017 Programme de réformes prioritaires in Senegal "(PRP) and the" Plan de
Développement de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche "(PDESR) 9, whose objectives
have all been translated into presidential decisions, which are in the process of being

In Senegal, the governance of research and innovation at the governmental level is
characterized by a breakdown of administrative and technical supervision without a unifying,
coordinating national framework. The MESRI has the administrative and technical supervision
of public and private higher education institutions (Universities, Colleges and Institutes) as
well as the Agence Nationale de Recherche Scientifique Appliquée (ANRSA) 10.

The Ministère de l’Agriculture et de l’Equipement Rural has the administrative and technical
supervision of the Institut Sénégalais de Recherche Agricole (ISRA) and the Institut National
de Pédologie (INP). The Ministère de l’Industrie et des mines has the administrative and
technical supervision of the Institut de Technologie Alimentaire (ITA), the Association
Sénégalaise de Normalisation (ASN), the Agence Sénégalaise pour la Proprièté Industrielle et
l’Innovation Technologique (ASPIT) 11 and the Agence d'aménagement et de promotion des
sites industriels (APROSI) 12. The Ministère de l’Environnement et du Développement Durable
has under its administrative and technical supervision the Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE).

  National Council on the Future of Higher Education
  Development Plan for Higher Education and Research
   National Agency for Applied Scientific Research
   Senegalese Agency for Industrial Ownership and Technological Innovation
   Agency for development and promotion of industrial sites
The Centre expérimental de recherches et d'études pour l'équipement (CEREEQ) 13 is under the
supervision of the Ministère des Infrastructures, du transport terrestre et du Désenclavement.
The Ministère du commerce has under its tutelage among others, the Bureau de Mise à Niveau
(BMN), the Agence de Développement et d’Encadrement des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises
(ADEPME)14, la Chambre de Commerce, d’industrie et d’artisanat (CCIA), the Agence
Sénégalaise de Promotion des Exportations (ASEPEX) 15, the Bourse nationale de sous-
traitance et de partenariat (BNSTP)16 and the Fondation Trade Point Sénégal (TPS) 17. The
Agence pour la promotion des investissements et grands travaux (APIX) 18, the Agence de
Développement de l’Informatique de l’Etat (ADIE) 19 and the Haute Autorité de la Zone
Economique Spéciale (HAZES) 20 are under the supervision of the Ministry in charge of
investment promotion. The Fonds de Garantie des Investissements prioritaires (FONGIP) 21,
the Fonds souverain d’investissements stratégiques (FONSIS) 22, the Fonds spécial de soutien
au secteur de l’Energie (FSE) 23, the Agence nationale de la Statistique et de la Démographie
(ANSD) 24 and the Banque nationale de Développement économique (BNDE) are under the
tutelage of the Ministère de l’économie et des finances 25.

This break-up has contributed to the dispersion and fragmentation of research and innovation
through a multiplication and superposition of priorities. Added to this is a weakness and
fragmentation of funding sources and a lack of visibility, consultation and synergy between
the stakeholders.

   Center for Experimental Research and Study of Equipment
   Agency for Development and Supervision of Small and Medium Enterprises
   Senegalese Export Promotion Agency
   National Subcontracting and Partnership Scholarship
   Trade Point Senegal Foundation
   Agency for the promotion of investments and major works
   State Computer Development Agency
   High Authority of the Special Economic Zone
   Priority Investments Guarantee Fund
   Sovereign Fund for Strategic Investments
   Special Fund for Support to the Energy Sector
   National Agency for Statistics and Demography
   Ministry of Economy and Finance
Figure 1: Système national des sciences, de la technologie et de l’innovation du Sénégal
(Senegal's National Science, Technology and Innovation System)
                                                                                                              NIVEAU DE MISE
                                                                                                                EN OEUVRE              Centres hospitaliers
                                                                                                               Ministère de la
                                                                                                                   Santé et
                                                NIVEAU DE                                                      l’Action sociale
                                               PROMOTION                                                                                  Laboratoires
                                                                  Académie nationale
                                                                   des Sciences et
                      Agence national de la                         Techniques du                                Ministère de
                                                                       Sénégal                              l’Environnement et du       Centre de Suivi
                           Recherche                                                                                                      écologique
                      scientifique appliquée                                                                   Développement
                                                                                  Fonds national de
                                               Conseil national                                                                       Institut sénégalais
                                                                                  Recherche agricole                                    de Recherche
                                               de la Recherche                                                    Ministère de
                                                                                  et agroalimentaire
                                                scientifique et                                                 l’Agriculture et
                                                                                    Système National de        de l’Equipement        Institut national
                                                                                     Recherches Agro-                                  de Pédologie
                                         Ministère de                                 Sylvo-Pastorales
                                         l’Enseignement supérieur                         (SNRASP)               Ministère de            Universités
                                           td l R h h                                                          l’Enseignement            publiques
        Fonds d’impulsion de                                                            Projets Palmeraie     supérieur et de la
           la Recherche                            Direction                                                      R h h
                                                  générale de                                                                       Institut de Technologie
           scientifique et                                                                                                                 alimentaire
             technique                           la Recherche                               Centres de          Ministère de
                                                                                            Recherche          l’Industrie, du
                                                                                            et d’Essais
                                        NIVEAU DE PLANIFICATION                                               Commerce et du         Agence sénégalaise
             Fonds de Publication              POLITIQUE                                                      Secteur informel        de normalisation
            scientifique et technique
                                                                    Agence sénégalaise de la                                         Centre d’Etudes de
                                                                   Propriété intellectuelle et de                                     Politiques pour le
                                                                    l’Innovation technologique                  Ministère de          Développement
                         Grand Prix du
                         Président de la
                                                                                                               l’Economie et
                                                                                                               des Finances            Agence nationale
                       République pour les         Grand Prix du Président                                                            de la Statistique et
                                                    de la République pour                                                             de la Démographie

Source : Enquête sur les instruments de politique, les organes directeurs, le cadre juridique
et les politiques pour la science, l’ingénierie, la technologie et l’innovation (SITI) [Survey of
Policy Instruments, Governing Bodies, Legal Framework and Policies for Science, Engineering,
Technology and Innovation (SETI)]

In 2015, an ANSD study revealed that only 8.7% of companies have maintained relations with
research centers. A relatively low level, which reveals the weakness of the research activities
in the companies and indirectly the innovation in the Senegalese industry. More than half
(52.3%) of companies that have connections to research centers use their products. However,
slightly more than a quarter (26.2%), despite having relationships with research centers, do
not use the results of their research.

Nevertheless, efforts are being made to improve governance through the implementation of
sectoral consultation frameworks like that of the Système National de Recherche
AgroSylvoPastorale (SNRASP) 26 created in 2008. The creation of the law 2009-17 of 9 March
2009 on the Code of Ethics for Health Research, and its implementing decree organizing the
operation of the so-called committee are also improvements in the local governance of health

Other improvements focused on the steering of the higher education and research system
with the creation of the Autorité Nationale d’Assurance Qualité de l’Enseignement supérieur
et de la Recherche (ANAQ-SUP) 27, the Direction Générale de l’Enseignement Supérieur
(DGES) 28 and the Direction Générale de la Recherche et de l’Innovation (DGRI) 29. The adoption
of the framework law in 2015 and performance contracts instituted in public universities
aimed at strengthening the institutional governance of research and innovation. The Conseil
National de l’Enseignement supérieur, de la Recherche, de l’Innovation, de la Science et de la
Technologie 30 is being created.

4     Frame 3: Innovation Policy in the Context of Transformative Innovation in

Pathway towards transformative change: despite significant investments in Frames 1 and 2,
Senegal is unable to resolve social and environmental problems in a sustainable manner.
Expenditure on R&D so far have not sufficiently provided the necessary boost to the economy,
one reason being the lack of applied research and the valorization of research results.
Similarly, the systems put in place to facilitate interaction between the actors of research and
innovation have so far produced limited results. It is then necessary to find a solution that
allows a sustainable transition. To this end, Senegal has decided to adopt a new development
model to accelerate its progress towards sustainable socioeconomic growth and inclusive
development. This strategy, known as Plan Sénégal Emergent (PSE), is the benchmark for
economic and social policy in the medium and long term.

PSE aims to improve the well-being of the population through inclusive growth. In this sense
it is in line with the aspirations of frame 3 on directionality (Schot and Steinmueller 2018) in
that it seeks to put in place “a process for setting collective priorities” necessary for achieving
the country’s societal goals.

Since independence, Senegal has implemented integrated policies and programs through its
various strategic documents. The objective is to ensure the conditions for sustained and
sustainable growth that can significantly reduce poverty. The aim has been to deploy
innovation for transformative change in order to address directionality failure in the country.

   National System of AgroSylvoPastoral Research
   National Quality Assurance Authority for Higher Education and Research
   General Directorate for Higher Education
   Directorate General for Research and Innovation
   National Council for Higher Education, Research, Innovation, Science and Technology
Indeed, after the implementation of two generations of Documents de Stratégie de Réduction
de la Pauvreté (DSRP) 31 from 2003 to 2010, Senegal has opted for a Stratégie Nationale de
Développement Economique et Social (SNDES) 32, for the 2013-2017 period, which constitutes
the conceptual framework for coordinating public interventions. Adopted in November 2012
by the Government and all its development partners, this strategy is based on the vision of a
National Strategy for Economic and Social Development with the aim of economic
development by 2035. The achievement of this ambition is based on the implementation of
a major investment program in thriving sectors, capable of stimulating strong and sustained
growth momentum. The strategic orientations are based on three axes:
• a structural transformation of the economy through the consolidation of the current
    drivers of growth and the development of new sectors that create wealth, employment,
    social inclusion and strong export and investment attraction capacity. This axis is part of
    a more balanced development option, the promotion of soils and viable economic clusters
    in order to stimulate the development potential of the entire territory (Axis 1);
• a significant improvement in people's living conditions, more sustained effort against
    social inequalities while preserving the resource base, and promoting the emergence of
    viable territories (Axis 2); and
• strengthening security, stability and governance, protecting rights and freedoms and
    consolidating the rule of law in order to create the best conditions for social peace and to
    promote the full development of the nation’s potentials (Axis 3).

The first Plan d’Actions Prioritaires (PAP 1) operationalises the PSE through the alignment of
the strategic axes, sector objectives and action lines, with development projects and
programs in a budget framework for the 2014-2018 period. The main projects and programs
included in PAP 1 focus on the following sectors: transport infrastructure and services; energy;
agriculture; education and training; drinking water and sanitation; health; governance, peace
and security; communication, telecommunications infrastructure and services; social
protection; risks and disasters; and environment. The 2014-2018 PAP consists of several
programs and projects among which are the Programme d'Urgence de Développement
Communautaire (PUDC) 33, the Plan de Développement de l’Enseignement supérieur et la
Recherche (PDESR), the Programme d’Accélération de la Cadence de l’Agriculture
Sénégalaise 34 (PRACAS), le développement du pôle industriel intégré de Diamniadio 35 and the
Zones économiques spéciales (ZES) 36.
The PUDC aims to contribute to the significant improvement of people's living conditions
through a more sustained fight against social inequalities, through sustainable access to basic
socio-economic infrastructure and services, and the creation of a local economy.

   Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers
   National Strategy for Economic and Social Development
   Community Development Emergency Program
   Program of Acceleration of the Cadence of Senegalese Agriculture
   the development of Diamniadio's integrated industrial pole
   Special economic zones
The PDESR objective is to broaden the university map and build the knowledge city. The
PRACAS on the other hand, which is the agricultural component of the PSE, is based on the
vision of “building a competitive, diversified and sustainable agriculture”. To operationalize
this vision, the PRACAS aims to achieve medium-term food and nutritional security in
concentric circles starting from priority products with high development potential and high
added value.
Another important development is the creation, by the Law No. 2017-06 of 6 January 2017 of
the Special Economic Zones, which is related to the Government objective of achieving the
objective of Axis 1 of the PSE: the structural transformation of the economy. The first project
of the Zone économique spéciale intégrée (ZESI) 37 was launched in 2016. It is built on 90
hectares with a 50-hectare industrial park, office space or a logistics platform. A second
integrated special economic zone is being developed in Sandiara in the department of Mbour

5.         Conclusion

Despite the political will of the Senegalese state to promote human capital, research and
innovation through multiple initiatives, various challenges remain. These challenges include
(1) the fragmentation of research and innovation institutional framework resulting from the
lack of a single consolidated strategy, (2) the weakness and fragmentation of funding sources,
(3) the lack of effective engagement between researchers and decision-makers, which
constitute obstacles to the development of a transformative innovation policy to both foster
and support transition to sustainable development and transformative change.

Senegal’s TIP Africa pilot team hopes to, through this project, explore the potentials for
transformative change in Senegal and the roles that STI policy can play in the process. Since
there are already initiatives to change socio-technical systems in Senegal in the PSE through
the PDESR, the PRACAS, the PUDC and in the ZES, the team hope to adopt what Kivimaa and
Kern refer to as the drift and conversion that consists in adding new rationales and goals
without changing instruments in the implementation of the PSE to get in the way of a
transformational change.

Case Study: ICT and Higher Education
Senegal’s selected case study will focus on ICT and Higher Education, using the Virtual
University for the investigation. This case study will attempt to answer one vital question for
Senegal: How to place ICT at the heart of the development of higher education and research

     Integrated Special Economic Zone
in order to improve access to higher education (including quality and affordability) and the
efficiency of the system?
6      References
African Economic Outlook 2015. AfDB, OECD UNDP. Overview.
African Innovation Outlook II April 2014 ASTII/NEPAD:
ANSD, Janvier 2017, Rapport provisoire de l’enquête sur l’état des lieux de l’industrie au
Babacar Ndir. 2010. Innovation et transfert de connaissances en Afrique.
Décisions présidentielles relatives à l’enseignement supérieur et à la recherche 2013
Gaillard Jacques et Ousmane Kane (2011) Le système national de recherche scientifique et
      technique au Sénégal: État des lieux et Proposition d’un cadre conceptuel pour
      l’élaboration d’un document cadre d’orientation des politiques nationales de
      recherche, de technologie et d’innovation. Rapport préparé pour l’UNESCO, Division
      des politiques scientifiques et du développement durable 96 pages.
Ministère de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche : ENQUÊTE GO-SPIN-Sénégal-
     questionnaire. FR 09-2013 (actualisé janvier 2016)
Schot, J., and Steinmueller, E. W. 2018. Three frames for innovation policy: R&D, systems of
     innovation and transformative change
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