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ISSN 1492-9600
Editorial Board | Comité de rédaction :
Jean Trottier, Chair/président, MALA, CSLA/AAPC
Cameron DeLong, NuALA, CSLA/AAPC, Board Representative |
  Représentant du CA
Douglas Carlyle, AALA, FCSLA/AAAPC
Luc Deniger, AALA, CSLA/AAPC
Marilou Champagne, AAPQ, CSLA/AAPC
Kevin Fraser, BCSLA, CSLA/AAPC
Ryan Wakshinski, MALA, CSLA/AAPC
Heidi Redman, NuALA, CSLA/AAPC
Timothy Bailey Edwards, NWTALA
Cindi Rowan, OALA, CSLA/AAPC
CSLA Board of Directors | Conseil d’administration de l’AAPC :
Carolyn Woodland, OALA, FCSLA/AAAPC, President, présidente
Hope Parnham, APALA, CSLA/AAPC, Past President, présidente sortante
Chris Grosset, NuALA, FCSLA/AAAPC, President-Elect, président élu
Cynthia Graham, OALA, CSLA/AAPC, Chair, Finance and Risk Management
Committee | présidente, comité des finances et gestion des risques
Michael Magnan, AALA, CSLA/AAPC
Tracey Hesse, AAPQ, CSLA/AAPC
Kathy Dunster, BCSLA, CSLA/AAPC
David Bodnarchuk, MALA, CSLA/AAPC
Cameron DeLong, NuALA, CSLA/AAPC
Margaret Ferguson, NWTALA, FCSLA/AAAPC
Laureen Snook, SALA, CSLA/AAPC
Michelle Legault, Executive Director, directrice générale |
Translation | Traduction :
Christian Caron |
Matthew Sendbuehler |
Editor | Rédactrice : Laurie J. Blake

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8 | TO BEGIN WITH |                   FOCUS | FOCUS                          44 | CHANGING MINDSETS:
POUR COMMENCER                                                               CREATING SUSTAINABLE AND
Slowing Down on the Road to           28 | ESSENTIAL WORKERS                 EQUITABLE URBAN LANDSCAPES
Everywhere | Ralentir le rythme à     How Landscape Architects Can           > FR_LP+ CHANGER LES
la croisée des chemins                Play a Critical Role in Preventing     MENTALITÉS : CRÉER DES PAYSAGES
Michelle Delk + Doug Carlyle, Guest   Future Pandemics                       URBAINS DURABLES ET ÉQUITABLES
Co-editors | Corédacteurs invités     > FR_LP+ TRAVAILLEURS                  See-Yin Lim
12 | OUR WRITERS |                    Le rôle essentiel des architectes      46 | PUBLIC HUMANITY
NOS RÉDACTEURS                        paysagistes dans la prévention         The role of art and design in times
                                      des pandémies                          of crisis
16 | PROLOGUE                         Michael Grove                          > FR_LP+ L’HUMANITÉ PUBLIQUE
Envisioning the Future                                                       Le rôle de l’art et du design en temps
Transdisciplinary Approach:           32 | LA VILLE MALLÉABLE                de crise
  An Infectious Idea                  Le paysage tactique, un processus      Ruth A. Mora + Gaston Soucy
Cultivating Relationships &           porté par les citoyens
  Community Engagement                > EN_LP+ THE MALLEABLE CITY
                                      How social trends have affected        FORUM | FORUM
                                      our practice
INTERVIEW |                           Stéphanie Henry                        52 | CRITIQUE
ENTREVUE                                                                     Mutation and Morphosis – Landscape
                                      36 | PANDEMIC AS PRACTICE:             as Aggregate
22 | CHRIS REED ON THE COMPLEX        DOING THE RIGHT THING FOR OUR          Reviewed by Brian Cook
LANDSCAPE                             > FR_LP+ LA PANDÉMIE COMME             54 | CRITIQUE
> FR_LP+ CHRIS REED SUR LE            RÉVEIL : AGIR POUR PRÉSERVER           The Post Carbon Reader: Managing
MONDE COMPLEXE ET DYNAMIQUE           NOTRE ENVIRONNEMENT CÔTIER             the 21st Century’s Sustainability Crisis
DES PAYSAGES                          Matthew A.J. Brown + Sandra A. Cooke   Reviewed by David Maestres

                                      40 | INDIGENOUS RECLAMATION            62 | THE PARTING SHOT |
                                      THROUGH LANDSCAPE DESIGN               UNE DERNIÈRE SALVE
                                      > FR_LP+ L’AMÉNAGEMENT                 Ron Jude: Unheard But Not Unseen
                                      PAYSAGER, OUTIL DE RECONQUÊTE          Toby Jurovics
                                      Jenna Davidson + Ryan Gorrie
                                                                             LP+ ONLINE |
                                                                             EN LIGNE
                                                                             TRANSLATIONS | TRADUCTIONS
                                                                             > FR_LP+ | VERSION FRANÇAIS

                                                                                                 WINTER | HIVER 2021 7

upcoming issues
summer 22 | awards of excellence
deadline march 11

fall 22 | blink
deadline june 10

prochains numéros
été 22 | prix d’excellence
date de tombée 11 mars

automne 22 | “blink”
date de tombée 10 juin


For submission guidelines |
Pour connaître les norms
rédactionnelles :
Laurie J. Blake,
Editor | Rédactrice

published by the Canadian Society
of Landscape Architects to provide a
national platform for the exchange of
ideas related to the profession. The
views expressed in LANDSCAPES |
PAYSAGES are those of the authors
and do not necessarily reflect those of
CSLA. Guest editors and contributors
are volunteers, and article proposals
are encouraged. Articles may be
submitted in either English or French.

publiée par l’Association des
architectes paysagistes du Canada
pour servir de plate-forme nationale
destinée à l’échange d’idées sur la
profession. Les opinions exprimées
appartiennent aux auteurs et ne
reflètent pas forcément celles de
l’AAPC. Nos rédacteurs invites
contribuent bénévolement. Nous
attendons, en français ou en anglais,     SPIRIT GARDEN CELEBRATION CIRCLE
vos propositions d’articles.              PHOTO BROOK MCILROY


SLOWING DOWN ON THE                                                            RALENTIR LE RYTHME À
ROAD TO EVERYWHERE                                                             LA CROISÉE DES CHEMINS
————                                                                           ————
IN EARLY MARCH 2020, I left New York City on a business trip.                  AU DÉBUT DE MARS 2020, j’ai quitté New York pour un voyage d’affaires.
Travelling has been a typical part of my entire career, but that trip proved   Les voyages sont légendes dans ma carrière, mais ce voyage allait être le
to be my last for an extended time. In response to the pandemic, we            dernier pour une longue période. La pandémie a eu pour effet de redéfinir
became bound to our homes and neighbourhoods in ways we didn’t                 notre relation avec notre résidence et notre quartier. J’ai redécouvert un
anticipate. In turn, I re-immersed myself into a neighbourhood I’ve long       quartier qui m’était familier depuis longtemps. À la croisée des chemins,
been familiar with. When you have nowhere to go, everywhere is the             de multiples destinations sont possibles.
                                                                               J’ai adopté la marche, une façon d’errer, d’observer, de réfléchir. J’ai
I turned to walking; it’s a way to wander, observe and think. More than        constaté qu’il s’agissait avant tout de ralentir le rythme. La marche
anything, I realized it’s about slowing down. Walking invites us to cross      approfondit la réflexion, nous met en contact avec notre corps et nos
boundaries, zooming in and out with our minds, bodies and senses. What         sens. Qu’ai-je manqué en ne volant pas d’un endroit à un autre? Qu’ai-je
have we missed flying from place to place? What have we overlooked             remis à demain, pendant que j’étais trop occupé à me rendre quelque part,
during our commutes, or with heads buried in our phones? Slowing down          la tête enfouie dans mon cellulaire? Ralentir signifie être attentif et ne
means paying attention, and not taking our environment for granted.            pas tenir notre environnement pour acquis. En observant et en constatant
Observing and understanding our impact in a place and with each other,         l’impact que nous avons sur notre milieu, et les uns sur les autres, notre
our focus shifts. We slow down and reset.                                      prenons conscience de notre environnement, on se réinitialise!

In this issue of LANDSCAPES | PAYSAGES, we invited contributors to             Dans ce numéro de LANDSCAPES | PAYSAGES, nous avons imaginer
imagine how we move forward from the coronavirus pandemic; how we              l’avenir après la pandémie, comment adapter et réformer notre pratique
re-adjust, recalibrate and reform our practice under the theme of RESET/       sous le thème RESET/RÉINITIALISER. Nos contributeurs nous livrent
RÉINITIALISER. Through a range of short-form and in-depth reflections,         leurs réflexions en cette période de remise en question sur la façon de
our contributors delve into this moment of pause and ponder how to             concevoir un monde plus adapté et optimiste.
design a more adaptive and optimistic world.

                                                                               CORÉDACTEUR INVITÉ, DOUG CARLYLE
GUEST CO-EDITOR, DOUG CARLYLE                                                  ————
————                                                                           J’AI CONNU MICHELLE dans le cadre du projet de la nouvelle bibliothèque
MICHELLE AND I know one another from working on the new Calgary                centrale de Calgary. Le conseil d’administration de LANDSCAPES |
Central Library. As a LANDSCAPES | PAYSAGES board, we asked Michelle           PAYSAGES a convié Michelle à titre de rédactrice invitée étant donné sa
to be a Guest Editor for this issue given her perspective working with a       vaste perspective et son réseau diversifié de personnes, de clients, de
diversity of people, clients, communities, and allied professionals across     communautés et de professionnels affiliés sur le continent, sans oublier
the continent, as well as for her personal passions and experiences.           sa passion et son expérience personnelles.
My work and life parallel Michelle’s, from daily walks to gratitude for
                                                                               Ma vie ressemble à celle de Michelle, des promenades quotidiennes au
the chance to uncover what’s around us. Through greater awareness
                                                                               sentiment de gratitude de pouvoir découvrir le monde qui nous entoure.
of the world, whether the pandemic, forest fires and extreme heat,
                                                                               Notre prise de conscience de la réalité, qu’il s’agisse de pandémies, de
or gross social inequities, there is an underlying urgency to RESET/
                                                                               feux de forêt, de chaleurs extrêmes ou d’inégalités sociales flagrantes,
RÉINITIALISER as a society and as a profession.
                                                                               nous incite à une RÉINITIALISATION sociétale et professionnelle urgente.
The response to the L|P solicitation from the U.S. and Canada has
                                                                               La réponse à la sollicitation de L|P aux États-Unis et au Canada a été
been gratifying. It’s reinforced the value of blurring our borders and
                                                                               gratifiante. Elle renforce l’idée du «sans frontière» pour la pluralité
celebrating plurality, as well as a desire for conversation and discussion,
                                                                               de nos échanges, ainsi que le désir de discuter, avant et pendant les
in and out of lockdowns.
We welcome your comments.
                                                                               Vos commentaires sont les bienvenus.

                                                                                                                                   WINTER | HIVER 2021 9
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                                                                            OUR WRITERS |
NOTRE CORÉDACTEURS INVITÉES                                                 NOS RÉDACTEURS

MICHELLE DELK                          DOUG CARLYLE                         MICHAEL GROVE                       STÉPHANIE HENRY
Michelle Delk, Director of             Doug Carlyle, AALA, FCSLA,           Michael Grove, FASLA is the         Stéphanie Henry, AAPQ, AAPC,
Landscape Architecture, Snøhetta,      RCA, has over 35 years of            Chair of Landscape Architecture,    cofondatrice de Castor et
is a passionate champion of            experience with a wide range         Civil Engineering, and Ecology      Pollux, développe une pratique
the public realm. As a partner         of award-winning projects,           at Sasaki, a global design firm     professionnelle fondamentalement
                                       from community master plans          with offices in Boston, Denver,     transdisciplinaire entre art, design
and landscape architect with
                                       to private gardens. With a           and Shanghai. His world view is     et paysage. Faire la ville par le
Snøhetta, she works to cultivate
                                       passion for city places large and    shaped by his two young children,   territoire, défendre l’espace public
trans-disciplinary collaboration
                                       small, Doug’s work investigates      both avid explorers of nature       ouvert et générer un droit à la
for the creative advancement           the diverse voices and forces        who deserve to experience the       ville autour d’espaces vivants,
of public environments. Her            that drive their ongoing             wonders of the world without the    guide les projets d’aménagement
unencumbered vision allows             transformation. He is curious        risk of planetary collapse.         auxquels elle participe. Ayant
for concerted explorations that        about the nuances of client                                              exercé en France, en Afrique et
embrace experimentation and            goals, seeking to develop strong                                         au Canada, ses référents urbains
improvisation within complicated       working relationships. Always                                            sont pluriculturels et sa pratique
social environments. With a            pursuing new knowledge and                                               est multiple allant de l’étude des
natural ability for engaging diverse   information, Doug is a lifelong                                          grands paysages, aux projets
community and client intricacies,      learner. This thirst for education                                       d’aménagement d’espace public en
Michelle guides complex projects       explains his interest in periodic                                        passant par les ateliers participatifs
                                       teaching and lecturing, which                                            de fabrication urbaine. L’intégration
ranging from master plans and
                                       he does at various universities                                          des citoyens et leur participation
brownfield redevelopments to
                                       in Alberta and across Canada.                                            in-situ lui sont essentiels.
realizations of urban plazas, parks,   Doug cherishes his daily walk
streetscapes and riverfronts.          to work through Calgary’s busy
Currently, she leads several efforts   streets, parks, and boulevards.
with Snøhetta, including the Ford      Doug is also a member of the
Campus Masterplan, the Theodore        Editorial Board of LANDSCAPES |
Roosevelt Presidential Library,        PAYSAGES.
and the re-imagined design of
the Joslyn Art Museum Garden in
Omaha, Nebraska.

                                                                            MATTHEW A.J. BROWN                  SANDRA A. COOKE
                                                                            Matthew A.J. Brown, OALA,           Sandra Cooke, OALA, APALA,
                                                                            APALA, CSLA, has more than 10       CSLA, has been practicing
                                                                            years of experience practicing      landscape architecture for 15 years,
                                                                            landscape architecture along the    in Ontario and more recently in
                                                                            Northeast Atlantic coastline,       the Atlantic provinces. Sandra
                                                                            from Boston to Newfoundland         co-founded Brackish Design
                                                                            and Labrador. His connection        Studio in 2019, a practice based in
                                                                            to coastal environments is also     Halifax and Saint John. At Brackish,
                                                                            evident through both practice       Sandra’s work focuses on projects
                                                                            and academia, which focus on        that respect and highlight the
                                                                            landscape architecture’s vital      unique beauty, culture, heritage
                                                                            role in regeneration and renewal.   and ecologies of coastal sites.
                                                                            Matthew co-founded Brackish
                                                                            Design Studio in 2019.


   RYAN GORRIE                        JENNA DAVIDSON                        SEE-YIN LIM
   Ryan Gorrie is a Principal         Jenna Davidson is a Planner at        See-Yin Lim, OALA, AALA, CSLA,
   Architect with Brook McIlroy,      Brook McIlroy in their Toronto        is an Associate at DTAH and has
   leads the Winnipeg office          office. She has a Double              worked on numerous award-winning
   and is the director of the         B.A. in Anthropology and              landscapes and urban design projects
   Indigenous Design Studio. A        Environmental Studies from            that elegantly fuse complex social
   member of Bingwi Neyaashi          the University of Victoria and        and ecological mandates. See-
   Anishinaabek, Ryan strives         a Master’s in Environmental           Yin is currently leading the public
   to ensure perpetuation of          Studies and Planning from York        realm and streetscape design for
   Indigenous culture through         University. She is deeply inspired    Waterfront Toronto’s Port Lands
   creative opportunities ranging     by interconnections between           Flood Protection and Enabling
   from the crafting of traditional   people and place.                     Infrastructure Project, a project that
   items to large-scale landmark                                            provides the organizing framework
   architecture.                                                            for future redevelopment of the area.

   RUTH A. MORA                       GASTON SOUCY                          TOBY JUROVICS
   Ruth A. Mora is an artist and      Gaston Soucy is an architect,         Toby Jurovics is the founding director
   designer and co-founder of SUMO    urban designer and co-founder of      of the Barry Lopez Foundation for
   Project. She likes creativity as   SUMO Project. He believes that        Art & Environment, which works
   a force for change. She uses       “specialization is for insects,”      with contemporary artists to create
   human-centric design and art       which has taken him to develop a      exhibitions about climate change
   to build bridges between spaces    variety of design skills to explore   and our changing relationship to
   and communities, focusing          how creative practices can            the land in a time of environmental
   on the contributions of art in     contribute to improve the spaces      crisis. He is fascinated by the way
   public spaces and communal         we inhabit while incorporating        the edges of the ground glass or
   engagement. She is currently       art as a mediator.                    viewfinder define the landscape.
   writing a book on that subject.

       Between borders shifting, collapsed meaning and future changes, the pandemic slapped the
   face of our constructed society and the norms we sunk into. Where the collective consciousness
      of humanity drifts remains a question. There is never short or definite answers to the future of
    landscape architecture. I want to think big but stay humble and hold constant the belief that the
“true” things that exist – the mountain, the ocean, the air we breathe, the physical object we made
     and touch – they are what they are. The core of landscape architecture, and so too its future, is
      rooted in our relationships with everything other than the self. Now or then, how we see, read,
      communicate, move and reshape the true existence of others will write down the future for us.
                                                                                        — Yuan Zhuang, Snøhetta

                                                                                                                     WINTER | HIVER 2021 13
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How has, and will, the LA profession change – post-COVID and beyond?

SNØHETTA WAS FOUNDED in 1989 with the competition-winning entry for the new library of Alexandria, Egypt. Since its inception, the practice has
maintained its original transdisciplinary approach, and integrates architectural, landscape, interior, product, graphic, digital design and art across its
projects. The collaborative nature between different disciplines is an essential driving force of the practice. At the heart of all Snøhetta’s work lies a
commitment to social and environmental sustainability, shaping the built environment and design in the service of humanism.

This RESET/RÉINITIALISER issue asked contributors to consider what it means to reflect and reassess, expanding the possibilities for sustainable,
equitable and beautiful landscapes. In response, members of the landscape team at Snøhetta were asked to envision the future of landscape
architecture and conditions shaping practice. The following collection of individual quotes are drawn from the team’s diverse backgrounds and
experience levels, encompassing a wide range of perspectives.

In the face of widespread global change, the          Since its start, landscape architecture has been      surrounding environment in different senses
challenges we grapple with are numerous               an instrument of property, power and wealth.          (hearing, smell, touch) and reflect this dynamic
and complex. What remains certain is that             To be meaningful in the future, the profession        experience into our design. Future landscape
no matter how we’ve detailed, specified or            must reevaluate its relationships to clientele and    architecture should create high-quality scapes
designed our constructions, they are still            capital, as well as adjust and expand the services    with lush experiences by using and designing
temporary assemblies that, when observed over         it provides. It is my hope that reinvigorated         for all our different senses to create a unique
longer time scales and varying spatial scales,        democracies find clarity of purpose and the           “sense” of place.
flow into and out of place. For every material        initiative to publicly fund environmentally           — Chao Li
and specimen that we import, we leave an              focused projects at the scale of continents.
                                                                                                            The future of landscape architecture will find
imprint – a void – on a site of extraction. The       Failing that, crowd-sourced projects and even
                                                                                                            new meaning at the neighborhood scale. As we
elements that make up our material palette            funding by way of social media is one possible
                                                                                                            begin to redefine in our post-pandemic world
are modified through use, weathering, and in          means toward doing work that matters.
                                                                                                            how we live and interact on a daily basis – at
response to economic and cultural shifts. Over        — Matt McMahon
                                                                                                            home, in the workplace, politically, socially and
time, the plants, stone, concrete, brick, wood
                                                      An amazing client recently asked us what would        in our landscapes – the small moments help us
and steel disaggregate, recombine, disperse and
                                                      make the forest happy to have him there. With         piece together new patterns: A handful of chairs
decompose – each at different rates. Someday,
                                                      the advantage of micro technologies, electronic       on the sidewalk allow my elderly neighbours
perhaps distant in the future or sooner than
                                                      monitoring and our imaginations, landscape            to safely leave their apartments and socialize
we anticipate, the materials we have worked
                                                      architecture has an opportunity to move from          outdoors, greeting passersby and wishing
so hard to keep together will break apart. Even
                                                      a field of vision and a field of experience to just   them a good day. An albeit-temporary wooden
the most permanent must be designed for
                                                      a field.                                              handrail near the subway entrance feels softer
impermanence. Can we simultaneously keep the
                                                      — Darlene Montgomery                                  than the metal one it replaced, gentler as we
extracted, the assembled and the discarded in
                                                                                                            return to our commutes. The more skillfully
focus when we design?                                 Our world is composed of different elements,
                                                                                                            crafted second and third generation of outdoor
— Emilia Hurd                                         and we use our many senses to perceive them.
                                                                                                            dining structures remind us that we will
                                                      We seem to focus too much on “what we can
                                                                                                            continue to build, improving as we go, and that
                                                      see” in the process of designing a project while
                                                                                                            the city street can be a generous, gracious and
JOSLYN ART MUSEUM GARDEN                              we ignore other dynamic senses. As a landscape
                                                                                                            hospitable place to occupy the public realm.
                                                      designer, I believe we should understand our
IMAGE COURTESY SNØHETTA                                                                                     — Kate Larsen



PUBLIC CITY IS FOUNDED on a belief that, in          tend to hem us in by regulation and territory.     the mature forest and responding to flood
the 21st Century, the prairie city needs to invest   In the face of massive change confronting          prevention measures, the Pavilion also presents
in strong public realms through collaboration        cities today – whether related to climate,         new types of indoor/outdoor multicultural
between design disciplines. As we anticipate         migration, or pandemic – our commitment to         gathering and multi-seasonal program spaces.
the post-pandemic city, we are struck by an          an unconstrained professional identity enables
                                                                                                        By engaging the client, authorities and the
emerging interest, from both public and private      us to strengthen our voice. In Winnipeg, where
                                                                                                        neighbourhood, we reprioritized the initial
sectors, in how to implement accessible and          we live and practice, problems of infrastructure
                                                                                                        program-ask (“provide toilets”) to expand
dynamic public urban environments. Since             and engineering tend to lead policy and public
                                                                                                        and diversify the social opportunity here, all
2016, we have been committed to an idea that         debate when it comes to the public realm. We
                                                                                                        on the same budget. A little bit inside, a little
architecture and landscape architecture are          are trying to influence – perhaps infect – that
                                                                                                        bit out, the mix of tempered public spaces
sibling disciplines that when working as one         conversation through a change of practice that
                                                                                                        with insulated rooms offers traditional ideas
entity can respond purposefully to the creation      prioritizes ideas about living in a pleasurable
                                                                                                        of shelter and function amidst evolving ideas
of new ways to use the public realm.                 public environment, as if that were actually
                                                                                                        about public gathering. This is a hybrid facility
                                                     the goal!
We follow a transdisciplinary approach                                                                  that introduces new relationships in an open
to practice where landscape architecture             Some of our recent projects in Winnipeg            public space that is at once architecture and
and architecture are positioned jointly at           challenge the typical demands of infrastructure    landscape architecture. Its shifting elevations,
the headwaters of all problem-solving, no            through a transdisciplinary response. Asked        flexible open-sky or open-wall rooms, play
matter the size or nature of the problem.            to provide a picnic shelter and washroom at        with environmental conditions and question
Transdisciplinary practice releases us from          Crescent Drive Park, we delivered a new type       the singularity of function ascribed to
the biases of those traditional identities           of pavilion. The Pavilion serves the Park and      park buildings.
that belong to each discipline. Identities that      program as intended; but, while preserving
                                                                                                        One of the nicest questions asked of us on
                                                                                                        opening day went like this: “Nice room, what
                                                                                                        is it for?”, to which we responded, “That’s the
                                                                                                        point, you tell us.”

                                                                                                        Liz Wreford, MALA, OALA, SALA, AALA, CSLA,
                                                                                                        is Principal Landscape Architect of Public City and
                                                                                                        has professional experience across Canada, the
                                                                                                        United States and Australia. She established her
                                                                                                        own practice in Winnipeg in 2011. Peter Sampson,
                                                                                                        MAA, OAA, AAA, FRAIC, is Principal Architect of
                                                                                                        Public City, based in Winnipeg. He is a Canadian
                                                                                                        architect of Swedish descent and grew up in both
                                                                                                        Montreal and Toronto. In 2008, he established his
                                                                                                        own practice and in 2016, Liz Wreford joined him as
                                                                                                        Director and Principal Landscape Architect.

                                                                                                                                 WINTER | HIVER 2021 17



AS A PROPONENT of flexible work schedules      Although we were able to make this leap to           landED is an educational program that offers
and creating a healthy work-life balance for   the virtual world with few, if any, logistical       land-based design and environmental learning
its employees, Little Bluestem Landscape       problems, we found that we missed having             through a variety of resources, tools and
Architecture was already a highly adaptable,   the meaningful connections that meeting in           workshops. Through landED, we are able to
smaller firm based out of Winnipeg, MB.        person brings; there are fewer conversations         share our passion and knowledge of design and
When one team member relocated to Calgary      about how life is going, or what your plans          nature, cultivating relationships between people
shortly before the pandemic, we shifted our    for the weekend are when you are on a Zoom           and the landscapes that surround them.
internal project meetings and critiques to     call. To combat this loss of interpersonal
                                                                                                    Throughout the pandemic, we released weekly
virtual methods allowing for interprovincial   connection, Little Bluestem started a weekly
                                                                                                    Teaching Tuesday videos, each with an activity
collaboration. Having these systems in place   virtual lunch date, coffee catch-ups, happy
                                                                                                    based on a subject from the current Manitoba
when the pandemic arrived enabled us to        hours and monthly team building activities.
                                                                                                    Educational Curriculum. These activities are
shift seamlessly to having all employees of    Recently, we spent a morning doing some
                                                                                                    designed to be fun and accessible for families
the firm working remotely. We were also able   online felting, and each participant ended up
                                                                                                    who found themselves suddenly homeschooling,
to apply these methods to client meetings,     with an adorable miniature bison ornament.
                                                                                                    focussing on assignments parents and children
as well as to our stakeholder and community    Finding the opportunities and spaces to have
                                                                                                    could do together. Little Bluestem Landscape
engagement strategies.                         personal connections within the team has been
                                                                                                    Architecture received the Spirit of Winnipeg’s
                                               key, especially as we continue to grow Little
                                                                                                    2021 #ReimagineWPG Award through the
                                               Bluestem with the addition of one permanent
                                                                                                    Winnipeg Chamber of Commerce for our
                                               landscape architect and two summer interns to
                                                                                                    dedication to the community, recognizing
                                               our team.
                                                                                                    how we pivoted and persevered through the
                                               The pandemic has also compelled us to                challenges that arose during the Covid-19
                                               focus more resources on helping our local            pandemic.
                                               communities engage with, and enhance, their
                                                                                                    To learn more about landED, visit www.
                                               outdoor spaces. With the majority of people
                                                                                           For more
                                               spending more time at home than ever before,
                                                                                                    information about the Spirit of Winnipeg
                                               it was the perfect opportunity to grow our
                                                                                                    Awards, visit
                                               “passion” project, landED.

                                                                                                    Tayler Bishop is a Landscape Architect with Little
                                                                                                    Bluestem Landscape Architecture in Winnipeg. The
                                                                                                    firm was recently featured on the Winnipeg Chamber
                                               1 LAURA SECORD TABLE TALK
                                               2 SPIRIT AWARD, WITH BISON                           of Commerce website Reimagine Stories series for
                                           2   PHOTOS LITTLE BLUESTEM                               the pivot during the pandemic..

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                                                                      CHRIS REED
                                                                      ON THE
                                                                      AND DYNAMIC
                                                                      WORLD OF

>FR_LP+ CHRIS REED SUR                        CHRIS REED IS the Founding Director of Stoss and is recognized internationally as a
LE MONDE COMPLEXE ET                          leading voice in the transformation of landscapes and cities. He works as a researcher,
DYNAMIQUE DES PAYSAGES                        strategist, teacher, designer and advisor. A recipient of the 2012 Cooper-Hewitt National
Directeur fondateur de Stoss, Chris           Design Award in Landscape Architecture, Chris is a professor of landscape architecture at
Reed est reconnu comme l’une des              the Harvard University Graduate School of Design.
sommités internationales en matière
                                              Chris recently sat down with Snøhetta’s Michelle Delk, the Guest Editor of this Reset issue,
de transformation des paysages et des
                                              and Dialog’s Doug Carlyle, a Landscape | Paysages editorial board member, to discuss his
villes. Il assume les responsabilités de
                                              inspirations and how he sees landscape architecture developing in this changing world.
chercheur, de stratège, d’enseignant, de
designer et de conseiller. Lauréat du prix
                                              Michelle Delk: Thank you for joining us          in the middle of the harbour with scrubby
national de design Cooper-Hewitt 2012
                                              Chris, we’re so excited to include your          vegetation, poison ivy, all sorts of stuff.
en architecture de paysage, Chris est
                                              thoughts in this issue. If I remember
professeur d’architecture de paysage à la                                                      Way at the end of the island was a
                                              correctly, you founded Stoss in 2001. Could
Graduate School of Design de l’Université                                                      lighthouse that was non-functional, an
                                              you tell us a bit about your background
de Harvard.                                                                                    intriguing ruin in a raw landscape. For me,
                                              and why you chose to study urbanism and
                                                                                               this adventure was an escape from the city.
Chris: J’ai trouvé intéressante cette         landscape architecture?
                                                                                               And though we were right in the middle of
approche sociale de l’urbanisme et c’est
                                              Chris Reed: One of my earliest memories          this bustling harbour, it felt like wild nature.
ce qui m’a conduit à étudier l’architecture
                                              was growing up in a working-class town,          In fact, it was always on our mind that we
de paysage. J’ai compris que les paysages
                                              New Bedford, Massachusetts, a port city          had to be sure to get back before the tides
pouvaient accomplir de multiples
                                              that’s still the nation’s number-one fishing     rose, stranding us on the island. It may have
fonctions simultanément.
                                              port from a revenue standpoint. They             been six inches of water at high tide, but
                                              catch fish and scallops, all landed within the   the idea that we were in a race with nature
                                              working waterfront and harbour. As kids,         or environmental cycles was part of the
                                              we’d go down to the waterfront and get           psyche of that place.
                                              out to remote Palmer’s Island by climbing
                                                                                               Turns out the dike was helping to poison
                                              across an enormous hurricane dike that
                                                                                               the harbour, trapping contaminated
                                              was installed after the 1950s. At one point,
                                                                                               sediments moving downstream from
                                              this dike was the largest in the country,
                                                                                               old industrial factories – all the while
                                              built to protect the harbor and its industrial
                                                                                               the city was struggling to maintain its
                                              resources. We would walk out at low tide
                                                                                               last major economic engine. It was this
                                              and scramble out to this old island right



mix of environmental and urban issues            control. They integrated mobility and                 Park systems, like
that really charged my imagination, for          transport in multiple ways. So, you put               those in Buffalo or
years. What I didn’t understand at the           all that together and you realize these
time was the complexity of environmental         are extensive urban projects, city-
                                                                                                       Boston, functioned
justice, contamination, urbanism, post-          making projects. They framed out new                  as green space,
industrial issues that were already in play at   neighborhoods to come. And while the                  recreation and
that place.                                      functional and imaginative agendas were
                                                 clear, you could also see the positive
                                                                                                       habitat. Yet they
I went to college thinking I was going to
                                                 impacts that these park systems had on                also created
be a lawyer, even though my passion
was looking at some of the green spaces,
                                                 the daily lives of so many people. That’s             biodiversity, and
                                                 what captured me. I came to landscape
infrastructure, wild lands and also the
                                                 through this understanding of urbanism,
                                                                                                       managed flood
urban fabric of cities. Only when I got to
                                                 through this understanding of social                  control.
college did I discover that you could study
                                                 reform and through the understanding of
the city as an academic focus. While taking
                                                 landscapes that could perform multiple
coursework on urban history, particularly
                                                 tasks simultaneously.
the history of the American city, I became
fascinated with the social reform efforts        Michelle: Chris, I’m inspired by your story
of the 19th century American city and            about your childhood, and I’m curious, do
how those eventually manifest in urban           you feel like those observations around
parks and parks systems. It was these park       the hurricane dike shaped or informed
systems that captured my imagination;            your future work?
they were an escape from the city, and yet
                                                 Chris: Yes, I think less explicitly at first,   1 CHRIS REED 2 THE NEW BEDFORD, MA HURRICANE
they were so urban.
                                                 and more explicitly later on. I came to         PROTECTION BARRIER IS A NETWORK OF DIKES AND
                                                                                                 GATES DESIGNED TO PROTECT 1,400 ACRES OF NEW
Park systems, like those in Buffalo or           understand that the hurricane dike              BEDFORD AND FAIRHAVEN FROM TIDAL AND STORM
Boston, functioned as green space,               afforded me opportunities to escape,            SURGE FLOODING. THE PROJECT WAS COMPLETED
                                                                                                 BY THE ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN 1966 AT A
recreation and habitat. Yet they also            but it was also part of a very unfortunate      COST OF $18 MILLION. FAIRHAVEN, MA 07/29/2021.
created biodiversity, and managed flood          environmental drama that was playing            PHOTOS 1 MIKE BELLEME 2 ISTOCK.COM/ROBERT MICHAUD

                                                                                                                           WINTER | HIVER 2021 23

                                                  I often think of the work we do as staging or scaffolding,
                                                  working within a particular milieu, understanding the
                                                  people and circumstances within a particular place.

itself out beneath the surface. And there           where our cultural value is. That’s where       consume you as a person, or collectively as
was something quite frightening and                 our cultural contribution is, and that’s        a firm. Issues that you continue to encounter
powerful about that, also coming to the             ultimately where our cultural capital will      and explore in different ways. And that’s
realization that so many of those problems          be. We are looking at how to address            the beginning of a design agenda, a cultural
were the result of human design and                 those bigger questions and challenges as        agenda. To boil that down to one example:
engineering. If humans can cause those              designers, as an office, as a practice and as   how do people sit down in public spaces?
problems through design and engineering,            a collaborative.                                Oddly, along the way, we discovered that
then maybe there are ways we can design                                                             we are furniture designers, which is just not
                                                    We want to understand from diverse
and engineer our way out of them.                                                                   what I think any of us expected. And yet how
                                                    disciplinary perspectives what is at stake
                                                                                                    people engage public space (sit, slouch, lie
Doug Carlyle: Can you tell us a little bit          in the project from standpoint of folks with
                                                                                                    down, people watch) is one of the ways that
about your design process and how you               far-reaching professional training. We also
                                                                                                    we begin to think about the dynamism of
think about those questions in your work?           consider public engagement as one form
                                                                                                    the public realm. And so, we’ve had this kind
                                                    of the research that we’re doing. The more
Chris: I think because of this perspective,                                                         of ongoing obsessive exploration, and it’s
                                                    that we connect with people up front and
this approach to landscape, I’ve always                                                             manifested in different ways.
                                                    invite ideas, invite them to share stories
thought landscapes should have an
                                                    and cultural histories, understandings of       For the Green Bay, WI, CityDeck project,
expansive agenda. They should take on
                                                    their particular place, the more chance         we designed seating that addresses the
more than just plants and horticulture and
                                                    those have of being reflected in the ways       infrastructural scale of that riverfront.
gardens and older notions of public space.
                                                    in which we develop design, language,           We were working with local craftsmen
Those are all great starting points, right?
                                                    material palettes, those sorts of things.       and carpenters, and so we had a very
But the idea that landscape can inform
                                                    And when somebody can see something             simple steel frame system that could be
infrastructure, can inform city systems at
                                                    within a design proposal that resonates with    manipulated in different ways so that you
large scales, is really one of the ideas at the
                                                    something that they have told us, it gets       had seating configurations: essentially
core of the practice from the start. These
                                                    them excited, and they feel ownership.          folded wood that allows you to sit up
days, those issues are even more expensive.
                                                                                                    straight, to lounge, to cluster, to be alone.
As we begin to face the multiple crises of          We also work through iteration, looking
                                                                                                    And in fact, that design language then
climate change, as well as social, cultural         at a project or problem through the lens
                                                                                                    carried out to the river and over the river
and racial crises, our work must continue           of integrated design, and trying it out in
                                                                                                    so that bigger folds became part of the
to take on these challenges – partly                different ways. It is a dynamic process. And
                                                                                                    language of the over-water piers. So, we
because we work primarily in the public             you know, there are moments of discovery
                                                                                                    come back to this idea: how can we use a
realm, partly because it’s the right thing          when, all of a sudden, the project becomes
                                                                                                    range of tools, materials and techniques
to do. It’s important that we engage these          something else, and those are just as
                                                                                                    to address similar kinds of issues, but in
issues through the medium of landscape              exciting too.
                                                                                                    different ways that best express their
and through the medium of design. That’s
                                                    Doug: How do you not get lost in all that       individual contexts?
                                                    data and find space for design to be a part
                                                                                                    How people engage public space is one
                                                    of the exploration or the research? Do you
3 GERSTACKER GROVE, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, ANN                                                     of those questions that gnaws at us and
ARBOR, MICHIGAN, USA. MODEL OF PREFABRICATED        have any thoughts, examples or challenges?
                                                                                                    continues to guide us, something we explore
GRASSHOPPER 4 VIEW OF PREFABRICATED,                Chris: In some ways, apart from the             over and over again in different ways and
                                                    environmental and social issues we’ve           with different manifestations. That’s the
IMAGE 3 STOSS PHOTO 4 MIKE BELLEME                  spoken about, there are things that just        kind of thing I’m talking about. You can then



extend those ideas to landform strategies,    are being expelled from countries around    projects, for issues through the work that
planting strategies, interactive technology   the world. There’s a lot of hate. There’s   we do.
strategies, anything you want. It’s about     a lot of disease. There are incredible
                                                                                          I often think of the work we do as staging
finding new ways forward, inventing and       environmental conditions everywhere.
                                                                                          or scaffolding, working within a particular
exploring as you begin to develop your        You could become overwhelmed with
                                                                                          milieu, understanding the people and
own kind of cultural language and cultural    all this. But we remind ourselves to take
                                                                                          circumstances within a particular place.
agendas.                                      a breath, and then we put our heads
                                                                                          How can the work we do redirect some of
                                              down and start to figure out, given
Michelle: The “Reset” theme of this issue                                                 the dynamics in play to more productive
                                              the resources that are at our disposal,
asks contributors to look at the future of                                                or more meaningful ends? How is it that
                                              given the tools and techniques that we
landscape architecture and our practice in                                                the way in which we stage projects
                                              have as designers, how can we begin to
general. What are you inspired by, and what                                               (with surfaces, patches, ground planes,
                                              address some of those really important
do you think people need to be addressing?                                                vegetation) might set up conditions that
                                              issues? We can do this directly, and also
                                                                                          allow people to engage landscapes in new
Chris: We’ve seen so much hardship.           by offering counterpoints that instill
                                                                                          ways, to engage each other in new ways.
Not treating other humans in reasonable       hope and opportunity and moments
ways, explicit and overt racism, whether      of joy within the city. We need to use a    Michelle: You’ve mentioned that you’re
that’s Blacks in America or whether that’s    constantly evolving and expanding design    talking with your students about some of
attitudes toward immigrants or people who     toolkit, and be advocates for people, for   these challenges and where we are in the

                                                                                                               WINTER | HIVER 2021 25

world right now. Doug and I have been very        Doug: How do you see academia going
impressed by all that you’re doing. We were       forward given the urgency of the various
wondering if you might share a little bit         issues you’ve described? Where does
more about the relationship that you have         academia fit with the broader community,
between your practice and academia.               not just the way landscape architecture
                                                  sees itself?
Chris: I would say practice, teaching
and research can all have reciprocal              Chris: I see, and have seen for many years,
relationships. I think some in academia           an increasing focus on interdisciplinary
say that’s where ideas are generated,             exploration, research and study to match
that’s where the frame and the context            the complexity of issues that exist in the
are established, and this is true. There          world. This is somewhat new; it might
are some incredibly smart people doing            be surprising to some that academic
research in multiple ways, they’re diving         institutions still can be very siloed by
deep into things that become quite useful         discipline. There are administrative and
to us as practitioners. They’re stepping          bureaucratic reasons why universities
back from the world that we’re engaging           are structured the way they are, and this
in on an everyday level and thoughtfully          can make it difficult sometimes for those
reconsidering the context and the frame           cross-collaborations to happen. But I
within which we are working, and within           think increasingly university presidents,
which we should be working.                       deans and faculty chairs are finding
                                                  ways to infiltrate this and to get their
And yet there are things that we encounter
                                                  faculties to exchange ideas. These are
through practice that hold the potential
                                                  intersectional questions, intersectional
for becoming new avenues of exploration
                                                  issues, intersectional domains; they’re
and inquiry. Oftentimes within my own life,
                                                  taking on issues that cut across disciplinary
I will discover something in one part of my
                                                  boundaries. And you begin to see creative
practice, say a question that we’re not fully
                                                  partnerships, oftentimes between
able to explore within the context of the
                                                  universities, non-profit organizations, and
brief or the client or the site that’s at hand,
                                                  even private companies or consultancies,
but has potential for further exploration or                                                             5
                                                  that use different sets of resources to
elaboration. Those are some of the ideas
                                                  formulate different approaches to some of
that I can bring into the research that I’m
                                                  the challenges we’re facing.
doing, or my teaching – to explore them
in a new way, unconstrained by schedule,          Doug: The audience for Landscapes |              where that individual motivation is. What
budget, pragmatics of projects. Not that          Paysages is both landscape architects and        is it that a student may be unknowingly
those are bad things, but research and            the general public, but also there’s a large     obsessed with?
teaching allow me to step back from and           audience of students. As we think about a
                                                                                                   I recall a conversation I once had with
explore those issues on their own terms,          “Reset” coming out of the pandemic, do
                                                                                                   somebody who worked in the office, and
as a way that might allow for a new way           you have any advice for this new era?
                                                                                                   she was unsure of the projects that she
of seeing, investigating or approaching
                                                  Chris: Embrace the challenges. Embrace           happened to be working on at that time.
an issue.
                                                  the complexity. Don’t put it aside. And then     And she said that these didn’t seem like
We do challenge students to be incredibly         find your own obsession, your own parallel       the important projects in the office. And
critical or thoughtful about the work they’re     obsession, and keep at that, too. Find your      I wondered: what do you mean by that?
producing, about the drawings they’re             creative medium.                                 And through the conversation, I argued
making. By being a helpful and productive                                                          that all projects are important. They may
                                                  Michelle: How do you stimulate students
critic at school, it actually helps me to                                                          be important in different ways, but there’s
                                                  around finding an obsession? Because I love
develop a critical voice through the firm and                                                      always something to be explored and
                                                  it. It’s really provocative, but how might you
through the work that we’re doing as well.                                                         invented in even the most mundane project
                                                  find it with staff in private practice?
So, I see those relationships as mutually                                                          brief. I mean, sometimes we are doing very
beneficial.                                       Chris: It’s got to come from the student.        simple things because of the circumstances
                                                  There’s got to be something in the person.       or the budgets. But somewhere in there
                                                  So, it’s not me imposing something on            is an idea that offers an opportunity for
BEACHFRONT PROMENADE. MOAKLEY PARK,               the student. It’s trying to find where that      learning and exploration, no matter what
BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, USA                        passion is, where that individual spark is,      the scale of the project, no matter how


important you think it is. I think that’s critical   It doesn’t have to be normative. I use the      could have left it there. But we also layered
for young folks entering the profession.             example of a project at the University of       in a lighting element, acrylic rods on a
Take on the thing that’s right there, the            Michigan for Gerstacker Grove, at the           stainless-steel base, and we made no
normative every day, and create something            centre of the university’s expansion of         effort to hide these within the vegetation.
beautiful out of it.                                 North Campus, surrounded by engineering         The harder it rains, the more the lights
                                                     schools. The program was to renovate that       flicker. So suddenly you’re seeing this lush
Michelle: How do you think of beauty,
                                                     quadrangle and make it more habitable,          vegetation with acrylic rods, and there’s
considering practice and your broader
                                                     make it more welcoming for students,            just a wonderful illumination and expression
thinking about landscape and urbanism?
                                                     bring them outside of the laboratories, give    to them: a beautiful experience makes
Chris: Beauty is subjective, right? It can           people an opportunity to just sit, hang out,    you want to slow down, it makes you want
be expressed in so many different ways.              relax, recharge, play a game of volleyball,     to notice or at least, subtly, to connect to
But design is an aesthetic pursuit. People           gather at certain moments and, at the same      what’s going on in the environment. The
don’t like to talk about that much anymore.          time, layer in a new, incredible biodiversity   opportunity to create a new and distinct
We like to evaluate projects based on                agenda into the campus. But we also had         experience at that moment for people
their ecological performance or on the               to collect 95% of all the storm water falling   moving through was really what was at
way in which they’re engaging people                 on the site and make sure it wasn’t going       the heart of that project. It’s experiential,
in neighbourhoods, or on what kind of                into drains.                                    aesthetic. It becomes part of the lived
economic advancement they might offer.                                                               experience of that place.
                                                     We designed gardens with these beautifully
And all those things are important. But
                                                     lush plant materials, contrasting prickly       Michelle: Yes, it really does. What a what
again, this ties to my comments on cultural
                                                     Taxodium with soft ferns and other plant        a lovely way to end our conversation by
agendas: ultimately, you want something
                                                     materials within the garden space. We           talking about beauty, Chris, thank you.
that’s also beautiful, or at least provocative.

                                                                                                                          WINTER | HIVER 2021 27



    >FR_LP+ TRAVAILLEURS                               MANY SUGGESTIONS ABOUT how the                3. advocating for responsible urbanization
    ESSENTIELS : LE RÔLE                               design community might react to a post-          and limiting sprawl; and
    ESSENTIEL DES ARCHITECTES                          pandemic world have been disappointingly      4. supporting advanced agriculture.
    PAYSAGISTES DANS LA                                human-centric: advancing sensor
                                                                                                     To be clear, I am not suggesting that
    PRÉVENTION DES PANDÉMIES                           technology to limit our need to touch
                                                                                                     landscape architects are going to prevent
    Tant que nous abîmerons les                        elevator buttons; designing buildings to be
                                                                                                     the next pandemic. But if humans, as a
    écosystèmes et réduirons                           flexible to serve as temporary hospitals;
                                                                                                     species, aim to limit our potential future
    la biodiversité, nos efforts                       or expanding urban parks due to a desire
                                                                                                     exposure, landscape architects play a
    seront vains.                                      for more outdoor space. These are just
                                                                                                     vital role.
                                                       Band-aids on a gaping wound. Until we
                                                       stop disrupting ecosystems and reducing       Championing Habitat Conservation
                                                       biodiversity, our efforts are superficial.    Habitat destruction and biodiversity
                                                                                                     loss doesn’t only occur when we destroy
                                                       Instead, there are four fundamental areas
                                                                                                     tropical rainforests. Degraded habitats
                                                       society should be focusing on, and that
                                                                                                     of all types create conditions for different
                                                       landscape architects have the unique
                                                                                                     types of viruses to thrive. COVID-19 is not
                                                       skillsets to lead:
                                                                                                     the first disease to cross over from animal
                                                       1. championing habitat conservation;
                                                                                                     to human populations, but it is a harbinger
                                                       2. fighting climate change;
                                                                                                     of more to come. In fact, the World Health
                                                                                                     Organization notes that approximately
                                                                                                     75% of emerging infectious diseases in
    AND DREAMS FOR WHAT THE CITY OF MISSISSAUGA’S WATERFRONT CAN BE 2 THE CHENGDU                    humans are zoonotic, meaning that they
                                                                                                     are transmitted to us through contact
    PHOTOS 1+2 SASAKI                                                                                with animals.*

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